Gender Pay Gap in Australia
Gender Pay Gap in Australia
The gender pay gap currently lies at 14 per cent (2019), and is measured as "the difference between women’s and men’s average weekly full-time equivalent earnings, expressed as a percentage of men’s earnings."
Gender gaps are not only apparent in remuneration, but occur in various other aspects. Here, a selection of remarkable gender gaps is listed:
- Labour force participation rate: 78 per cent males vs. 66 per cent female
- Persons not in the labour force: 22 per cent males vs. 34 per cent females
- Educational attainment (attainment of year 12 formal qualification): 86 per cent males vs. 90 per cent females
- Life expectancy: 80.3 years for males vs. 84.4 years for females
- Time caring for children: 3:55 hours per day for males vs. 8:33 hours per day for females.
What can be clearly seen from this list (see Australian Bureau of Statistics: Gender Indicators, Australia, Aug 2016 for further indicators) that women tend to be more educated and healthy, yet, they are on average missing in the labour market, as they are more involved in caring for children.
"The Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 (Act) replaced the Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Act 1999. The strengthened legislation aims to improve and promote equality for both women and men in the workplace. [...]
The Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 requires non-public sector employers with 100 or more staff (relevant employers) to submit a report to the Workplace Gender Equality Agency between 1 April and 31 May each year for the preceding 12 month period (1 April – 31 March reporting period)."
Employers are required to report on the following gender equality indicators:
1. "gender composition of the workforce
2. gender composition of governing bodies of relevant employers
3. equal remuneration between women and men
4. availability and utility of employment terms, conditions and practices relating to flexible working arrangements for employees and to working arrangements supporting employees with family or caring responsibilities
5. consultation with employees on issues concerning gender equality in the workplace
6. any other matters specified by the Minister: sex-based harassment and discrimination"
Equal Pay Day in Australia
The Equal Pay Day has been initiated in 2009 for the first time.
The Equal Pay Day 2016 has been held on September 8, 2016. As the gender pay gap gets smaller, the Equal Pay Day 2019 has moved to August 28, 2019. A variety of BPW events have taken place across Australia.
As the Australian financial year closes in June, the counting of days until the day when women start to earn in the new financial year starts on July 1. Otherwise, the same calculation of the EPD is applied as in European countries. Respectively, the Equal Pay Day 2015 has been celebrated on September 4.
In April 2009, BPW Australia determined to galvanise advocacy around the issue of equal pay and gender inequity. Partnering was an essential asset to the Equal Pay Campaign. In July 2009, BPW Australia reached a landmark agreement with the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) signing a Memorandum of Understanding to form the Equal Pay Alliance. Since then, 58 organisations, including NGOs, employers and employee representations, have joined the alliance.
- Workplace Gender Equality Agency: Australia's Gender Pay Gap Statistics
- Workplace Gender Equality Agency: Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012
- Workplace Gender Equality Agency: Reporting Requirements